Monday, February 7, 2011

Typing in Indic languages in Ubuntu using ITRANS

(For Ubuntu 10.04, see further below.)

Ubuntu 12.04

I found this tip that made things really easy. To summarize:
  • Install ibus-m17n.
  • Go to System Settings -> Language Support -> Keyboard input method system. Choose `ibus'. Close the dialog.
  • Click on Dash Home. Type ``ibus'' and click on the ``IBus'' icon that appears. A keyboard icon appears in the system tray (top right of screen).
  • Click on the keyboard icon -> Preferences -> Input Method -> Customize active input methods -> Select an input method -> (Now choose your language and input method). Click on Add. (Add as many as you want.) Close the Preferences dialog.
  • Open a new document in gedit. Click on the keyboard icon and select the input method (the default setting will be ``Input method Off'').
  • Start typing in your preferred language.

Ubuntu 10.04

To type in Indic languages in Ubuntu using ITRANS scheme, do the following
  • Go to synaptic; install
    • TrueType fonts for required language (search for language name, e.g. 'kannada')
    • SCIM
    • m17n
    • itrans
  • Run gedit
  • Right-click on editor. Select 'Input Methods' -> 'SCIM Input Method'. The SCIM icon (a keyboard) will appear in system tray (where date etc. are there).
  • Go to 'Kannada'-> 'kn-trans'. (Or to any other language)
  • Go back to editor and start typing in Indic using the ITRANS scheme (see below).

ITRANS Scheme (copied from here)

Vowels (dependent and independent):
a     aa / A       i      ii / I       u     uu / U 
RRi / R^i    RRI / R^I    LLi / L^i    LLI / L^I
e     ai     o     au     aM    aH

k     kh     g     gh     ~N
ch    Ch     j     jh     ~n
T     Th     D     Dh     N
t     th     d     dh     n
p     ph     b     bh     m
y     r      l     v / w
sh    Sh     s     h      L
x / kSh     GY / j~n / dny     shr
R (for marathi half-RA)
L / ld (marathi LLA)
Y (bengali)

Consonants with a nukta (dot) under them (mainly for Urdu devanagari):
k  with a dot:      q
kh with a dot:      K
g  with a dot:      G
j  with a dot:      z / J
p  with a dot:      f
D  with a dot:      .D
Dh with a dot:      .Dh

Anusvara:       .n / M / .m  (dot on top of previous consonant/vowel)
Avagraha:       .a    (`S' like symbol basically to replace a after o)
Ardhachandra:   .c    (for vowel sound as in english words `cat' or `talk')
Chandra-Bindu:  .N    (chandra-bindu on top of previous letter)
Halant:  .h    (to get half-form of the consonant - no vowel - virama)
Visarga:        H     (visarga - looks like a colon character)
Om:  OM, AUM (Om symbol)

[As shown, many codes have multiple choices, example "RRi / R^i" implies you
 can use either "RRi" or "R^i"]

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